Lower Danube river basin hub

At a glance

  • Most international river basin

    in the world

  • Home to 80 million


  • 19

    riparian countries

  • 801,463 km2

    total area

  • More than 2850 km water course

    from source to sea

  • About 6,500 m3 / s

    mean delta discharge

  • 700 - 800 mm estimated

    average annual rainfall

Water users:

  • Water pollution: The Danube Basin is subject to significant levels of water pollution, including agricultural and industrial sources, which negatively impacts water quality.
  • Water Resource Availibility: Changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and evaporation rates due to climate change have the potential to significantly impact water availability in the Danube Basin. It is also causing increased frequency and severity of floods.
  • Ecological and hydromorphological pressures: 73% water bodies of the Danube are considered to be heavily modified. Impoundments, river alterations, water abstractions, hydropeaking, disconnected floodplains or disturbed sediment balances impact the water status and ecological function of the river landscape. 
  • Water scarcity and drought: The Danube Basin experiences periods of water scarcity and drought, which limit the availability of water for various uses such as irrigation, industry, and domestic purposes. 
  • Competition for water resources: There is competition among various sectors, such as agriculture, industry, and domestic use, for limited water resources, which requires effective water resource management and allocation.
  • Aging infrastructure: Much of the infrastructure in the Danube Basin, including dams, dikes, and water treatment facilities, is aging and in need of repair or replacement.

Main challenges exacerbated by climate change: